Current projects

  • Equity in climate change policy

    Justice is central to climate policy, since the transition to a carbon-neutral society requires significant systemic changes for instance in energy, food and transportation systems. It is important to ensure that the change is implemented fairly, meaning that no one is left behind or suffers unreasonably from the change.

     

    Objectives: In the project, a just transition is understood to comprise four dimensions. Distributional justice draws attention to the fair distribution of the impact of policy measures between regions, groups of people and individuals. Procedural justice considers the equal opportunities of people to participate in decision-making and to influence the planning and implementation of change. Recognitive justice means, for example, considering different worldviews, power structures and lifestyles. Restorative justice focuses on mitigating the unwanted distributional effects of policy.

    In practice: The project clarifies the dimensions of just transition in terms of both climate change mitigation and adaptation, and develops a framework to support the formulation, implementation and evaluation of climate policy. In addition, the project examines the effects of climate policy, especially from the perspective of basic and human rights. The focus is on energy, transport and food sectors, as well as regional issues. Justice concerning the Sámi as an indigenous people is examined separately.

     

    Further information:

    Paula Kivimaa
    Research Professor
    Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE)
    paula.kivimaa@syke.fi +358 29 525 1283

  • A pathway for reducing net emissions in Finland – the Climate Change Panel’s proposal for including targets on emissions and sinks in the Climate Change Act

    Further information:

    Markku Ollikainen
    Research DIrector, Professor Emeritus
    University of Helsinki
    markku.ollikainen@helsinki.fi +358 50 415 1201

  • Contribution of consumers to climate change mitigation and the Finnish climate policy

    Further information:

    Jyri Seppälä
    Research Professor
    Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE)
    jyri.seppala@syke.fi +358 40 740 1708

  • Information needs, claims and beliefs related to the climate impact aspects of forest utilization – scientific bases and interpretation 2.

    Further information:

    Jyri Seppälä
    Research Professor
    Finnish Environmental Institute (SYKE)
    jyri.seppala@syke.fi +358 40 740 1708

  • Electrification in energy systems - the effect on CO2 emissions reductions

    Final reports in Finnish:

    Electrification is key in cutting greenhouse gas emissions

        Suomen ilmastopaneelin julkaisuja 3/2021: Sähköllä merkittävä rooli Suomen kasvihuonekaasupäästöjen leikkaamisessa (pdf)

     

    3 more reports are to be published, with summaries in English.

     

    Further information:

    Peter Lund
    Professor
    Aalto University
    peter.lund@aalto.fi +358 40 515 0144

  • Adapting to climate change in Finland - regional dimensions and policy instruments

    SUMMARY

    The new EU strategy on adaptation to climate change highlights the urgency of adaptation measures while
    making adaptation more important as a response to climate change alongside mitigation. In order to provide
    information on how adaptation to climate change has been promoted in Finland and what calls for attention
    next, we have compiled a comprehensive information package focusing on the following themes: adaptation
    policy, impacts of climate change including economic impacts, regional adaptation strategies, climate and
    flood risks in regions and sea areas, and the availability of scientific data.

    This report consists of two parts. Part 1 of the report examines the work carried out on adaptation in Finland
    and internationally since 2005, emphasising the directions and priorities of recent research results. The
    possibilities of adaptation governance are examined through examples, such as how adaptations steering is
    organised in of the United Kingdom. We also examine other examples and describe the Canadian Climate
    Change Adaptation Platform (CCAP) model. We apply current information to describe the economic impacts
    of climate change and highlight the related needs for further information. With regard to regional climate
    strategy work, we examine the status of adaptation plans by region and the status of the Sámi in national
    adaptation work.

    In part 2 of the report, we have collected information on the temporal and local impacts of climate change
    and compiled extensive tables on changes in weather, climate and marine factors for each of Finland’s current
    regions, the autonomous Åland Islands and five sea areas, the eastern Gulf of Finland, the western Gulf of
    Finland, the Archipelago Sea, the Bothnian Sea and the Bay of Bothnia. As regards changes in weather and
    climate factors, the changes already observed in 1991-2020 are examined compared to 1981-2010 and future
    changes until 2050 are described. For weather and climate factors, we examine average temperature,
    precipitation, thermal season duration, highest and lowest temperatures per day, the number of frost days,
    the depth and prevalence of snow, the intensity of heavy rainfall, relative humidity, wind speed, and the
    amount of frost per season (winter, spring, summer, autumn). Flood risks, i.e. water system floods, run-off
    water floods and sea water floods, are discussed from the perspective of catchment areas by region. The
    impacts of floods on the sea in terms of pollution are also assessed by sea area, especially for coastal areas.
    With regard to marine change factors, we examine surface temperature, salinity, medium water level, sea
    flood risk, waves, and sea ice. We also describe combined risks towards sea areas.

    With this report, we demonstrate what is known about climate change adaptation, what is not, and what calls
    for particular attention. The results can be utilised to strengthen Finland’s climate policy so that the
    implementation of climate change adaptation is strengthened alongside climate change mitigation efforts. In
    practice, the report serves the reform of the National Climate Change Adaptation Plan and the development
    of steering measures for adaptation to climate change both nationally and regionally. Due to its scale, the
    report also serves e.g. the United Nations’ aim of protecting marine life in the Baltic Sea and the national
    implementation of the EU strategy for adaptation to climate change.

    As a whole, the implementation of adaptation policy in Finland must be speeded up swiftly in order to achieve
    the objectives set and ensure sufficient progress in adaptation in different sectors. The development of
    binding regulation and the systematic evaluation, monitoring and support of voluntary measures play a key
    role.

    The keye messages of the chapters of the report are summarised here. In addition, at the beginning of each
    chapter of th report, key observations are discussed in more detail. The section on climate efforts in Åland is also available in Swedish (page 135) and the section on climate efforts of the Sámi in Northern, Inari and Skolt Sámi (pages 136-138).

    1. Adaptation
    Adaptation to climate change means active measures to manage both current and future weather and climate
    risks and to minimise the resulting social and economic risks. Adaptation is local, but it cannot be done in full
    without assessing regional and global riplle effects to the local level and its social and economic functioning.
    In the planning and implementation of adaptation, the aim should be minimum total damage.

    2. Adaptation policy
    In Finland, regulation of adaptation is mainly general by nature. Dialogue on adaptation must be strengthened
    between different actors, administrative branches and administrative levels. New means towards more
    systematic steering of adaptation are also needed. The implementation of adaptation plans must be made
    more efficient through further funding for weather and climate risk management, personnel and data
    resourcing, regulation, monitoring, and evaluation. Climate roadmaps can support cooperation in regional
    adaptation. They should ensure common goals for adaptation and clarify roles, responsibilities and practices
    as well as links to preparedness efforts. The usability of planning tools for voluntary adaptation must be
    enhanced broadly, for example through cooperation between authorities, research institutes, universities,
    consultants and further training providers.

    3. Economic impacts of climate change and adaptation
    Extreme weather phenomena and the gradual rise in temperature cause costs, require private adaptation
    measures and public steering to promote it. Public health costs arise from global and insect borne diseases,
    the increase in mortality caused by heat waves and the decrease in labour productivity, which emphasises
    the role of public authorities in increasing adaptability. Adaptation policy can be made more efficient by
    utilising adaptation indicators for cost-effective selection of measures and by increasing the use of financial
    steering measures. Society must promote the production and dissemination of information to reduce
    uncertainty related to climate change.

    4. Regional strategic plans against climate change
    After climate efforts having been largely focused on mitigation, adaptation efforts and their planning are
    gaining momentum in the regions and cities. Regional climate forecasts and methodological support for
    participatory planning processes for adaptation as well as the participation of local actors in research projects
    can promote adaptation efforts in regions. Networks within and between regions and cities can support the
    promotion of climate efforts as a whole in terms of both mitigation and adaptation.

    5. Regional climate change progress and flood risks
    Due to climate change, average temperatures are rising throughout Finland, especially in the winter. Through
    warming, average annual rainfall is increasing throughout the country. Regional variation is to be expected,
    especially in the occurrence of snow and frost. Especially in southern Finland, in areas where temperatures
    are increasingly above zero in winter, snow and frost occur all the more rarely. For some weather phenomena,
    the impacts of climate change are more uncertain: For example, in the light of current information, no major
    changes are to be expected in the number and intensity of storms in the upcoming decades, but there are
    great uncertainties in assessing this. Climate change affects flood risks in different ways in different parts of
    Finland due to the types of flood risk. Increase in heavy rainfall increases the risk of storm water floods, and
    the risk of sea water floods is expected to increase at least in the Gulf of Finland. The risk of water system
    floods has been estimated to increase especially in the large water systems of Southern and Central Finland.
    On the other hand, further to the north, changes may be fairly minor in the near future and the direction of
    the change is uncertain.

    6. Risks of climate change in marine areas in 1991-2020 and the future
    Climate change increases the surface temperature of the Baltic Sea, the sea level in the long term and the
    risk of flooding on the coast and in southern coastal cities, especially in the Gulf of Finland. The ice cover
    period in the winter season of the Baltic Sea will shorten, especially from early winter, but due to wind, ice
    conditions in the winter may continue to be challenging for shipping in the coming decades. In order to
    minimise environmental risks, all vessels operating in the area must be able to pass through ice, and sufficient
    icebreaking capacity in the areas must be ensured. In addition, considering the objectives of climate change
    mitigation, vessels should be as carbon neutral as possible and cause minimal damage to air quality.
    Changes in nutrient pollution in catchment areas affect the status of coastal areas. Agricultural measures
    planned in Finland, such as gypsum treatment of fields, can reduce nutrient pollution despite the impacts of
    climate change. As nutrient pollution through river waters is at its highest level in the spring, eutrophication
    in the summer is not expected to rapidly decrease.

    7. Developing the steering of adaptation
    In view of the speed of climate change, it is essential to combine climate measures to simultaneously mitigate
    climate change through emission reductions, increase carbon sinks and adapt to inevitable changes. Climate
    action must be more extensively linked to planning processes, as it changes the operating environment in
    different ways for different actors and affects the public and private sector as well as, ultimately, society as a
    whole. Proposals to develop the steering of adaptation measures have been compiled at the end of the report.

    Full report available in Finnish: Ilmastonmuutokseen sopeutumisen ohjauskeinot, kustannukset ja alueelliset ulottuvuudet

    Further information:

    Hannele Korhonen
    Research Professor, Director of Climate Research Programme
    Finnish Meteorological Institute
    +358 29 539 2135

  • Options for future peatland use in carbon neutral Finland

    Report to be published November 2021, with summary in English

     

    Further information:

    Kristiina Regina
    Research Professor
    Natural Resource Institute Finland (Luke)
    kristiina.regina@luke.fi +358 29 532 6474

Completed projects

  • A pathway for reducing net emissions in Finland – the Climate Change Panel’s proposal for including targets on emissions and sinks in the Climate Change Act

    Final reports in Finnish:

    Analysis and recommendations for emissions reduction and net sink targets in the new climate act:

         Suomen ilmastopaneelin raportti 1/2021: Ilmastolakiin kirjattavat pitkän aikavälin päästö- ja nielutavoitteet – Ilmastopaneelin analyysi ja suositukset (pdf)

     

    Memo on the design of climate governence in the new climate act:

        Suomen ilmastopaneelin julkaisuja 1/2021: Suomen ilmastopaneelin muistio ilmastolain suunnittelu- ja seurantajärjestelmästä (pdf)

     

    Further information:

    Markku Ollikainen
    Research DIrector, Professor Emeritus
    University of Helsinki
    markku.ollikainen@helsinki.fi +358 50 415 1201

  • Consumer perspective in climate policy (2020)

    The individual consumer’s impact on climate change prevention has often been underestimated. However, household consumption forms a significant portion of Finland’s GHG emissions, approximately 70 per cent of GHG emissions of final domestic demand (SYKE’s ENVIMAT model).

    Objectives: The objective of the project is to clarify and organise the way the consumer perspective is handled in climate policy. The project report provides concrete examples of potential measures for curbing climate change, which can be used in political decision-making. The project focuses on housing, nutrition, mobility and other household product and service chains, including import and export.

    In practice: The project commences with a literature review and expert interviews, which are used to document various parties’ understanding of the consumer’s role in curbing climate change. After this, an interactive stakeholder process is initiated, during which three workshops are arranged. The workshop team compiles the investigation results from phases 1–2 into a synthesis, which includes political measures to promote climate action by consumers.

    Further information:
    Lassi Linnanen
    Lappeenranta University of Technology
    tel. +358 50 550 3305

  • Memo: Adaptation guidelines in climate policy (2020)

    Objectives: The objective of the memo is to help allocate the Climate Panel’s up-coming projects in support of preparing the adaptation policy.

    In practice: The background study for the memo includes examining projects by the Climate Panel in the past period of activity, international adaptation literature and other relevant publications. The examination will focus on three themes.

    1. Challenges in adaptation from the point of view of livelihood and infrastructure

    This theme examines cross-sector risks and international cross-border effects in particular. According to the interim review of the adaptation plan (2019) on the status of national adaptation, there were several flaws in the state of preparedness for adaptation in different sectors. Likewise the recognition of international cross-border effects was lacking. The memo will examine these shortcomings within the framework of cross-sector risks and harm adaptation.

    1. Assessment of the national and international adaptation policy

    This theme consists of examining climate risk management and the national adaptation policy. The theme examines the preparedness of the public and private sectors, how responsibility is divided between them and how the adaptation policy will be assessed and monitored. The focus is on the assessment of climate risks, public issues related to the assessment and the implementation of measures by comparing the state of Finland’s adaptation measures to international examples to a suitable extent.

    1. Health and adaptation

    This theme investigates what kinds of adaptation measures are available to prevent the essential health and well-being hazards of climate change; the main emphasis is on the welfare and health sector, but other fields relevant to preventing the hazards are also examined. The theme seeks international examples of adaptation measures on national level and the effectiveness of these measures. The monitoring of the sufficiency of adaptation as well as national information reserves utilised in the monitoring and their potential development needs are investigated.

    The parties participating in the project:

    University of Helsinki: Sirkku Juhola, Fanny Groundstroem, Janina Käyhkö
    National Institute for Health and Welfare: Timo Lanki, Päivi Meriläinen, Virpi Kollanus
    University of Jyväskylä: Marja Järvelä

    Further information:
    Timo Lanki
    National Institute for Health and Welfare
    tel. +358 (0)29 524 6326

  • The social acceptability of climate action (2020)

    Consideration for the acceptability of climate action becomes more relevant as the actions begin to affect people’s daily lives and the operational conditions and objectives of citizens.

    Objectives: The objective of the project is to identify and analyse the criteria of the social acceptability of climate actions in sectors that have a direct impact on the conditions of people’s daily lives, time management and way of life.

    In practice: The project will include a literature review that will examine the concept of social acceptability in the context of climate action, social acceptability as a term and, to a suitable extent, literature on the changes in economic structures in order to link those changes to climate action and its impact on employment. The project will also involve a brainstorming session for professionals and civic organisation representatives. The contents of the discussion will be developed on the basis of the earlier workshop of the Climate Panel’s engagement project concerning social acceptability, and the discussion will also consider themes that were strongly brought up during the election period (April 2019). Both national and local media as well as social media channels to a suitable extent are selectively put under observation at the time. In addition, the project will examine the social impacts of an update on the regional transport system plan.

    Further information:
    Marja Järvelä
    University of Jyväskylä
    tel. +358 (0)40 805 4141

  • Overview of national climate change advisory councils (2019)

    National climate change advisory councils across the world are formed and function differently. However, what they share are independence, expertise and recommendations that are based on the best available scientific knowledge.

    Objectives: This project aims to paint a clear picture of the procedures, backgrounds and mandates of other national climate councils, so that they may be taken into account when planning the Finnish Climate Change Panel’s next term.

    You can find the most recent version of the report here

     

    Further information:
    Markku Ollikainen
    University of Helsinki
    tel. +358 50 415 1201

  • Climate change and water management: preparedness and health impacts (2019)

    Finnish water management has yet to consider the health impacts of climate change. For example, the rising temperature of surface water and increased rainfall may cause many problems, such as reduced quality of drinking water.

    Objectives: The project aims to provide an overview of climate change preparedness in Finland when it comes to water management. The results can be used for the Water Safety Plan (WSP) and future investments plans. The implementation of the project and communication about it increase knowledge on adaptation to climate change in Finland.

    In practice: A survey is used to investigate how water supply facilities are prepared to the threats and changes brought on by climate change. The project also aims to model the health impacts of reduced drinking water quality and assesses the costs of health risks and adaptation measures related to water management.

    Further information:
    Timo Lanki
    National Institute for Health and Welfare
    tel. +358 29 524 6326

  • The climate and cost effects of electric vehicles for consumers (2019)

    Reducing traffic emissions is a key issue if Finland wishes to meet the emission reduction objectives of the EU and adhere to the Paris Agreement.  The electrification of private vehicles has been given considerable importance in the transformation process.  However, the number of new electric vehicles has been modest so far, partly due to reservations over electric vehicles. The emission benefits have been uncertain, and while car manufacturers are being offered electrical vehicles at an increasing pace, the life cycle costs of electrical vehicles have not been taken into account.

    Objectives: The objective of the investigation is to compile information on the climate and other relevant matters regarding electrical vehicles in a clear and easy-to-grasp form and bring them to the attention of consumers and decision-makers. The objective is also to create a basis of knowledge for consumer choices as well as a calculation tool to help analyse the costs and GHG emissions of alternative fuel vehicles for the entire life cycle of the vehicle in a way that is easy to grasp from the consumers’ point of view.

    In practice: The project investigates the GHG and cost effects that electrical vehicles intended for consumers have on hybrid, combustion engine and gas-operated vehicles for the entire life cycle of the vehicle. The effects of biofuel are also included. The study is based on information contained in the literature, which will also be used to create a free online application aimed at consumers to support their purchase decisions. The calculation criteria and key results will be made into a separate report.

    Further information:
    Jyri Seppälä
    Finnish Environment Institute
    tel. +358 40 7401708

  • Climate education (2019)

    The Climate Change Panel’s 2015 report on climate education revealed Finnish climate change education to be lacking.

    Objectives: The objective of the project is to help the public, schoolchildren and students get more involved in climate work. The project collects ideas for curbing climate change from young people and helps them adjust to the changes brought on by climate change. Their attitudes and concerns regarding climate change are also explored.

    In practice: A Community of Learners is formed, comprising of schoolchildren, students, teachers, climate change education experts, members of the Finnish Climate Change Panel, Arctic Centre staff and teacher trainers. The purpose of the Community is to create new, solution-driven material for climate change education.

    Further information:
    Ilkka Ratinen
    University of Jyväskylä
    tel. +358 50 344 9582

  • How much and with whom - perspectives on greenhouse gas emission reductions and relevant actors (2019)

    Finland’s emission reductions objectives are impacted by the UN’s climate agreement system, including the Paris Agreement, and the climate actions of the EU. The October 2018 IPCC report on 1.5 degrees and the insights about the actions and effects required by the 2-degree objective, which are gradually becoming more precise, define what kinds of actions the implementation of the Paris Agreement requires, how the climate change curbing policy should be shaped and how challenging adapting to climate change will turn out to be.

    Objectives: The objective of the project is to create a clear picture of the science-based messages on the status and needs of curbing climate change and to offer insight about the most important promotional actions to be taken in Finland and other key countries.

    In practice: The project examines the progress of the implementation of the Paris Agreement and assesses the willingness to carry out the current internationally defined requirements for countries that are in a key position from the point of view of GHG emissions. In addition, the project considers factors related to generating motivation to take emission reduction measures.

    The project will be carried out in four parts. The science-based view of the 1.5 and 2-degree objectives and how to reach them sub-project will examine the current understanding of the required global emission reduction paths and the technological resources for reaching them in the light of currently existing research. The Paris Agreement and climate progress sub-project will examine the progress of the Paris Agreement implementation process and the countries’ political willingness to meet the internationally defined requirements that have already been imposed. The sub-project also assesses the willingness of the key countries to demonstrate their commitment to their promises. The 2050 objectives of Finland sub-project will assess the optional emission reduction paths of Finland and discuss the size of the necessary carbon sink. The climate actions of citizens and communities sub-project will contemplate what kinds of opportunities cities, citizens and communities have to take climate action as well as seek tangible measures to make people more active and cities take progressive decisions.

    The result of the project will be an easy-to-grasp report that the Climate Panel plans to use to stir discussion about making more effective climate policies. The project also entails a seminar and other possible events and publications.

    Further information:
    Kati Kulovesi
    University of Eastern Finland
    tel. +358 (0)50 439 217

  • Carbon neutrality in climate policy (2019)

    Countries, municipalities, companies, organisations and even individuals have set carbon neutrality as their goal in order to reduce their GHG emissions. However, carbon neutrality has not been clearly defined, and different parties interpret the term differently.

    Objectives: The project clarifies the term “carbon neutrality”, which is the climate policy goal for countries, municipalities and counties alike, and establishes the rules and compensations related to achieving it. The project examines how carbon neutrality can be achieved on a temporal and regional level and from the perspective of climate agreements. The project also investigates how carbon offsets and various biobased  operations affect accomplishing the goal.

    In practice: The project investigates three topics. The first one is how carbon neutrality is interpreted and what principles different parties follow in order to achieve it. The second topic is carbon neutrality as a climate policy goal. The third part focuses on the calculation principles and acceptable compensations for emission reduction measures. A stakeholder seminar will be held regarding these results. The fourth part investigates the effects of biobased operations on achieving carbon neutrality. A synthetic report on the project will also be produced.

    Further information:
    Jyri Seppälä
    Finnish Environment Institute
    tel. +358 40 7401708

  • LULUCF and forest reference levels (2019)

    The LULUCF regulation regulates how the land use sector is included in the targets of the EU 2030 climate and energy framework. The forest reference levels are an estimate of how large the forests’ average, annual actual carbon sink (or emission source) would grow in the periods 2021–2025 and 2026–2030, assuming the member nations follow sustainable forestry practices as was done in the reference period 2000–2009. It is the task and right of member nations to define the forest reference levels by following the LULUCF criteria. The European Commission has published technical guideline for interpreting said criteria.

    Objectives: The project clarifies the background of the LULUCF regulation, options for definitions and reasons for differences in measures between countries.

    In practice: As a part of the project, the Climate Panel will publish the report “LULUCF and Forest Reference Levels”, which describes the European LULUCF regulation, its processes and related reference calculations in addition to nation-specific examples.

    Further information:
    Antti Asikainen
    Natural Resources Institute Finland
    tel. +358 29 532 3250

  • Public participation in climate policy (2019)

    Public participation is an important part of the purpose and general objectives of the Climate Change Act. However, the Act does not provide specific instructions on how to promote public participation.

    Objectives: The project mission was to clarify the meaning of participation in climate policy. The investigation follows the participation initiatives and climate measures, particularly from the perspective of publicly set goals. It also assesses how climate measures affect the health and well-being of the public.

    In practice: The project consisted of three workshops. They dealt with, for example, the impact that climate measures have on the well-being and social equality of the public. The project report includes a summary of the workshop discussions and suggestions for prioritising measures. Two Master’s theses were produced as background reports for the project. One of them discusses the climate action taken by large cities outside the capital region from a participation standpoint. The other one investigates the willingness of companies to participate in climate education.

    Further information:
    Marja Järvelä
    University of Jyväskylä
    tel. +358 40 805 4141

  • Climate change and forest damage (2019)

    The changing climate influences the sustainability of the forests’ carbon stores and related risks, such as insect damage. The impact of biotic and abiotic damage on the forests’ carbon sequestration capacity is significant and has been predicted to grow in substantionally as the growth environment changes.

    Objectives: The project investigates the likelihood and magnitude of forest damage caused by climate change.

    In practice: The project summarises what we know about the factors causing forest disturbances and the climate factors that affect the risks of large scale forest disturbances in Finland, the rest of Europe and North America. The project includes a multidisciplinary expert workshop, which investigates the interplay between climate change and forest disturbances. The report “The Impact of Forest Disturbances Risks on Finnish Forest Development” will also be published as a part of the project.

    Further information:
    Antti Asikainen
    Natural Resources Institute Finland
    tel. +358 29 532 3250

  • Analysis of similarities and differences between models describing forest development trends (2019)

    The use of Finnish forests has been described and simulated using several different models. The results provided by the models vary due to their different implementation and parameters. It is therefore important to compare the different models by using the same primary data in order to understand what causes the differences in results.

    Objectives: The objective is to understand how the models describing the carbon balance of Finnish forest utilisation differ from each other. What factors in the models explain the differences?

    In practice: The investigation examines the projections made by six different carbon balance development models (EFDM, EFISCEN, FORMIT, MELA, MONSU and PREBAS) using three different logging scenarios (Low approx. 40 mil m3 per year-1, Policy approx. 80 mil m3 per year-1 and Highest sustainable approx. 85 mil m3 per year-1). The period of examination varied between different models, ending either in the year 2065 or 2100. Changes in carbon stores were used to measure carbon balance, with growing carbon stores indicating the forest serves as a carbon sink.

     

    Further information:
    Markku Kanninen
    University of Helsinki
    tel. +358 50 4486 133

     

  • Drivers for vehicle electrification (2018)

    The transport sector is globally one of the sectors causing the most emissions. Curbing the emissions requires new transport solutions, such as switching from internal combustion engine vehicles to electric vehicles. Over the recent years, the electric vehicles’ share of the total fleet has been rapidly growing across the world. However, the regional and national differences in the electrification of vehicles are notable.

    Objectives: The goal of the project is to generate information and promote penetration of vehicle electrification and the related taxing solutions, financial aid, informative guidance, technical prerequisites and charging infrastructure, as well as the flexibility and storage potential of electric vehicles in the electric market.

    In practice: The project has three parts. The first one assesses methods of supporting the acquisition of electric vehicles and promoting their use in Finland cost-efficiently. The second one produces an estimate of the development of charging infrastructure in a way that promotes the popularisation of electric vehicles. The third part generates information on the flexibility potential of electric vehicles in the electric market and assesses the decentralised energy storage potential of electric vehicle batteries.

    Further information:
    Maria Kopsakangas-Savolainen
    University of Oulu
    tel. +358 40 187 4284

  • Utilising forest biomass to restrain climate change (2017)

    The two-phase project provides an overview of the threats and opportunities of Finnish forest use in curbing climate change.

    Objectives: The objective is to clarify unanswered key questions regarding the effects that forest use has on the climate and its cost efficiency in curbing climate change. Points of consensus and dissent are identified, along with the reasonings behind them. A specific goal is to concretise the effects that the upcoming EU regulations for the land use sector will have on the forest use options in Finland. Emphasis will be placed on clear communication and making cause-effect links easier to understand.

    In practice: The first phase involves compiling all currently open-ended questions over which there is not yet consensus in the scientific field and for which decision-makers want clear answers. A team of researchers composes reasonings for the differing viewpoints in the field and assesses the need for further in-depth investigation in 2017. During the second phase, Finnish forest use plans, along with their threats and opportunities, are evaluated based on the collected data, data generated during the in-depth investigation and EU’s decisions.

    Further information:
    Jyri Seppälä
    Finnish Environment Institute
    tel. +358 40 7401708

  • Achieving transport emission goals 2030 - investigating policy measures (2017)

    The purpose of the investigation is to assess the expected emission reduction effects of the transport emission reduction goals outlined in the energy and climate strategy, as well as produce data on the emission reduction potential and cost efficiency of the required emission reduction policy measures. The central idea behind the Panel’s recommendation is directing funds towards developing a more efficient transport system and promoting vehicle electrification instead of supporting renewable fuels.

    Further information:
    Heikki Liimatainen
    Tampere University
    tel. +358 40 8490 320

  • Researchers’ central messages about the climate effects of forest use (2017)

    The Paris Agreement provides for ambitious climate targets across all sectors, leading to the need to understand the potential use of forests more comprehensively. The Climate Change Panel decided to examine and gather the best available scientific knowledge from leading research scientists on forest use and climate change. The goal was to provide a clear message from the scientific community on what is often considered a discordant public discussion on forest use. Statements were gathered on key issues on forest use and climate change and a scientific expert panel formed. Each statement was then concisely analysed based on the researchers’ views to form a clear policy-relevant response.

    Report: Main messages from researchers concerning the climate impacts of forest utilization

  • Clean technology solutions: climate and economy (2016)

    Cleantech, or clean technology, refers to all products, services, processes and systems that cause less environmental harm than their traditional counterparts. This project of the Climate Change Panel defines the term and examines the role of cleantech in reducing GHG emissions, as well as its potential in benefitting national economy and employment.

    Further information:
    Markku Ollikainen
    University of Helsinki
    tel. +358 50 415 1201

  • Climate change risks, costs and responsibilities (2016)

    In addition to causing long-term changes, climate change influences the frequency, magnitude and timing of exceptional weather phenomena. These phenomena increase the risks related to the well-being of our society. This project investigates how these risks and related costs and responsibilities are distributed between the public and private sectors. Special attention is paid to assessing the sharing of responsibilities for flood and crop damage.

    Further information:
    Markku Ollikainen
    University of Helsinki
    tel. +358 50 415 1201

  • National energy and climate strategy (2013) monitoring (2016)

    The special task of the Climate Panel is to monitor the implementation of the national energy and climate strategy, as well as evaluate the consistency of climate policy and the adequacy of its goals and the measures taken. This research project on the strategy investigates its efficiency, strengths and problems. The results of the project provide recommendations for more efficient monitoring of energy and climate policy.

    Further information:
    Marja Järvelä
    University of Jyväskylä
    tel. +358 40 805 4141

Finnish Climate Change Panel’s projects and reports 2012-2015 in archive

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